"Islamic Research Media"

..::: Hazrat Umar Farooq Radi Allah Ta’ala Anhu :::..

“If there were to be a Prophet after me,
he would have been Umar.”(Tirmidhi)

“Amongst the nations before your time, there have been inspired people (who were not Prophets), and if there is one amongst my Ummah, he is Umar”
– Rasulallah (SallallahoalaihiwasallaM)


Hazrat Umar (R.A) belonged to the Adi family of Quraish tribe. In the 8th generation, his lineage joins with Rasulallah (s.a.w).He was born in 583 A.C., about forty years before the great Hijrah. The early life of Hazrat Umar is not known in detail. In his youth he was a famous wrestler and orator, and a spirited person. He was one among the few people in Makkah who knew how to read and write. His main occupation was business.When the Rasulallah (s.a.w) recieved the revelation and invited people to Islam, Hazrat Umar initially became the sworn enemy of Islam and Rasulallah (s.a.w), and did not hesitate to harm the Muslims at every opportunity.

Hazrat Umar’s acceptance of Islam

It was the sixth year of Rasulallah (s.a.w)’s mission when the leaders of Quraish called a meeting and asked for volunteers for the assassination of Rasulallah (s.a.w). Hazrat Umar offered himself for this job and everybody in the meeting exclaimed that he was the right person for it. While he was on his way, with a sword in his hand, he met Hazrat Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas who enquired of him about where he was going. Hazrat Umar told him that he was going to murder Rasulallah (s.a.w). After some discussion Hazrat Sa’d said, “You had better take care of your own family first. Your sister and brother-in-law both have accepted Islam”.

Hearing this, Hazrat Umar changed his direction and went straight to his sister’s house. When Hazrat Umar knocked at the door, they were being taught the Holy Qur’anby Hazrat Khabbab (R.A). His sister Fatima was frightened on hearing Hazrat Umar’s voice and tried to hide the portion of the Holy Qur’an she was reciting. When Hazrat Umar entered the house he enquired about their Islam and on finding that they had accepted Islam, he first fell upon his brother-in-law and beat him severely. When his sister intervened he smote her so violently on her face that it bled profusely. On this his sister burst out: “Do whatever you like, we are determined to die as Muslims”.

When Hazrat Umar saw his sister bleeding, he cooled down and felt ashamed. He loved Fatima very much but could not tolerate her conversion to Islam. However, deeply moved, Hazrat Umar asked her to show the pages on which the Holy Qur’an was written. But she was, after all, Hazrat Umar’s sister and told him straight, “You can not touch it unless you take a bath and make yourself clean”.

He then took a bath and read the scripts. It was the beginning of Surah Ta Ha (Chapter 20 of the Holy Qur’an). Finally he came to the verse:

“Lo! I even I, am Allah, there is no god save Me. So serve Me and establish Salat for My remembrance.”(Holy Quran – 20:14)

At this, Hazrat Umar exclaimed, “Surely this is the Word of Allah. Take me to Muhammad (s.a.w)”.

On hearing this Hazrat Khabbab (R.A), who had hidden himself in the house, came out from inside and said, “O Umar! Glad tidings for you. It seems that the prayer of the Rasulallah (s.a.w) which he said last night has been answered in your favour. He prayed to Allah: “O Allah, strengthen Islam with either Umar b. Khattab or Umar b. Hisham, whomsoever Thou pleaseth”.
Hazrat Umar then went to Rasulallah (s.a.w). On seeing him, Rasulallah (s.a.w) asked him, “Umar! what brings you here”? He said, “I am here to accept Islam”.
Hearing this the Muslims shouted with joy, “Allahu Akbar! (Allah is the Greatest)” and the sound echoed though the air of Makkah.

As a matter of fact, Umar’s conversion to Islam was a terrible blow to the morale of the disbelieves. Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud, a great Companion, says, “Hazrat Umar’s conversion to Islam was a great triumph, his emigration to Madinah a tremendous reinforcement and his accession to Caliphate a great blessing for the Muslims”.

Hazrat Umar gets the title of Al-Farooq (RAu)

The conversion of Hazrat Umar (R.A) strengthened Islam.Before this, Muslims had lived in constant fear of the disbelievers, and most of them were concealing their faith. The Muslims were now able to offer their Salat publicly. When Hazrat Umar (R.A) became a Muslim, he declared his faith openly before the Quraish chiefs. Though they stared at him, they could not do any harm to him. Then once he had been granted permission from Rasulallah (s.a.w), he led a party of the Muslims to the Kabah to offer Salaat. Hazrat Hamza, who had accepted Islam a few days before Hazrat Umar (R.A), carried another party of the Muslims to Kabah.

When all the Muslims gathered in the Kabah, they offered their Salat in congregation. Rasulallah (s.a.w) led this, and it was the first public Salat in the history of Islam. For this courageous and bold action of Hazrat Umar (R.A), Rasulallah (s.a.w) gave him the title of al-Farooq i.e., the one who makes a distinction between the right (haqq) and the wrong (batil).

Migration to Madinah

When the Muslims were ordered to migrate to Madinah, most of them left Makkah quietly and in secret, but Hazrat Umar (R.A) declared it openly.He put on his armour and first went to the Kabah. After performing the Salat, he announced loudly: “I am migrating to Madinah. If anyone wants to check me, let him come out. I am sure that his mother would cry for his life”.There was no man in Makkah to accept the challenge of Hazrat Umar (R.A). Then he migrated to Madinah boldly.

Hazrat Umar’s services to Islam

Hazrat Umar (R.A) had great love for Allah and Rasulallah (s.a.w). He participated in almost all the big battles: Badr, Uhud, Ahzab, Khaibar, Hunain etc. In the expedition of Tabuk, he gave half of his wealth in the path of Allah.He was next to Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) in the sacrifice of his belongings for the cause of Allah.

Rasulallah (s.a.w) also had a deep love for him. Once he remarked, “Were a prophet to come after me, he would have been Umar”.
In another Hadith mentioned in Bukhari, Hazrat Abu Hurairah (R.A) narrated that Rasulallah (s.a.w) said, “In Bani Isra’il (Israelites), there were people who were not prophets but talked to Allah. Were anyone in my Ummah like those persons, he would be Umar”.

The death of Rasulallah (s.a.w) was a great shock to him, and he could not believe it until Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) reminded him of a clear verse of the Holy Qur’an on the subject. He then went to the Council Hall along with Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) where the people of Madinah had assembled to select the First Caliph. Hazrat Umar (R.A) was the first person to pledge loyalty (Bai’at) at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr(R.A), and then helped him throughout the duration of his rule.

Hazrat Umar Farooq – the second Khalifa of Islam

During Hazrat Abu Bakr’s illness he consulted the people about the next Khalifah, and then gave his decision in favour of Hazrat Umar (R.A) who took the charge of Khilafat after the death of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) on 22nd of Jamadius Thani 13 A.H. (23rd August 634 AC).
Umar (R.A.) followed fully the ways of Rasulallah (s.a.w) and the policy of his predecessor, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique, with his characteristic zeal and vigour. It was his strict adherence to the Sunnah of Rasulallah (s.a.w) which helped him to subdue the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine.

The period of Hazrat Umar’s Khilafat undoubtedly is the Golden Age of Islam in every respect.
He was a man of extraordinary genius who not only moulded the destiny of the nation but made history of his own.

He followed the footsteps of Rasulallah (s.a.w) to the fullest extent. It was Hazrat Umar under whose rule Islam became an international power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine crumbled before the army of Islam.Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the fold of Islam.

Martyrdom of Hazrat Farooq-e-Azam (R.A)

In 23 A.H., when Hazrat Umar returned to Madinah from Hajj, he raised his hands and prayed:

“O God! I am advanced in years, my bones are weary, my powers are declining, and the people for whom I am responsible have spread far and wide. Summon me back to Thyself, my lord!”

Some time later, when Hazrat Umar went to the mosque to lead a prayer, a Magian named Abu Lulu Feroze, who had a grudge against Hazrat Umar on a personal matter, attacked him with a dagger and stabbed him several times. Hazrat Umar reeled and fell to the ground.
When he learned that the assassin was a Magian, he said, “Thank God he is not a Muslim.”

The injuries were so serious that the great Khalifa died the next morning.

Before his death, the Muslims asked him about his successor and he appointed a panel of six persons; Hadrat Uthma Zubair, Talha, Sa’d bin Waqqas and Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf (R.A) to select a Khalifah from amongst them within three days after him.

He requested Hazrat Aisha (R.A) for permission for his burial beside Rasulallah (s.a.w), just as Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique expressed the same wish. Though she had reserved that place for herself, on Umar’s request she gave it to him and that is where he was buried.

Wives and Children


1. Hazrat Zainab (R.A) accepted Islam but died in Makkah. She was sister of Uthman bin Maz’un. She gave birth to Hazrat Abdullah Abdur Rahman and Hazrat Hafsah (wife of Rasulallah (s.a.w)) were the children she bore to Hazrat Umar.

2. Malkiah bint Jarwal, she did not accept Islam and was divorced in 6 A.H. according to Islamic law. She gave birth to Ubaidullah.

3. Quraibah bint Abi Ummiyah, she also did not accept Islam and was divorced in 6 A.H.

The above three marriages had taken place before Hazrat Umar (R.A.) accepted Islam. After accepting Islam he contracted marriages with the following:

4. Ummi Hakim bint-ul-Harith, she gave birth to a girl named Fatimah.

5. Jamilah bint Asim, she gave birth to a son who was named Asim. She was a Muslim but was divorced for some other reason.

6. Umm Kulthum bint Hazrat Ali (R.A). She was married in the year 17 A.H. She gave birth to Ruqayyah and Zaid.

7. Atikah (R.A)


1. Ummul Mumineen Hazrat Hafsah (R.A) – the chaste wife of Rasulallah (s.a.w).
2. Ruqayyah – the youngest daughter of Hazrat Umar.

3. Abdullah
4. Ubaidullah
5. Asim
6. Abu Shahmah
7. Abd-ur-Rahman
8. Zaid

His Works

He added the phrase â prayer is better than sleep to the Fajr azaan,

The taravih prayers were formally initiated during his rule,

He instituted punishment for the consumption of liquor,

Started the Hijri system of accounting for dates,

Gave the concept of the jail,

Fixed salaries for the muezzins, arranged for light in the masjids,

Formed the department of the police, laid the foundations for a complete system for the delivery of justice,

Got the irrigation system implemented and established military cantonments and the formal army.

Hazrat Umar (Radiallahu Taala Anhu), for the first time ever in the world, granted stipends for the infants, the
handicapped, widows and the helpless.

He was the first ever to give the concept of the declaration of assets by the rulers, the government officials and the rich.

He established the institution of punishing the judges who misdelivered justice.

He, for the first time, made the rulers accountable. He used to protect the trade caravans at night.

He used to say that rulers who deliver justice, sleep fearlessly at night.

His saying is that the leader of the nation is actually its servant.

His stamp read Hazrat Umar Radiallahu Taala Anhu, death is enough of an admonition.

He never had two dishes on his table.

He used to go to sleep with a brick as a pillow.

While traveling, he would just stretch a sheet on a tree to make a shadow and go to sleep whenever sleepy.

He used to sleep on bare ground at night. His shirt had 14 patches, among them one of red leather.

He used to wear thick coarse cloth and hated soft fine one.

Whenever he appointed someone on a government position, he would get an estimate of his wealth and keep it with himself. If the wealth of that person increased during his tenure, he would be held accountable. Whenever he appointed anyone as a governor, he would advise him to never to ride a Turkish horse, wear fine cloth, consume fine flour, have a gatekeeper or close his doors to
the distressed.

He used to say that pardoning a tyrant is injustice to the oppressed.

His sentence mothers give birth to free children, since when have you enslaved them
is still considered the charter of human rights.



I heard that al-Albânî permits women to visit the graveyard? Is this true? How does he explain the hadith that reads: “Allah’s Messenger cursed the women who visit graves?”

Answered by:-

The Fatwa Department Research Committee – chaired by Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî

Al-Albânî is of the opinion that women may visit the graves, and that is preferred for them to do so, but that they should not do so excessively.

“Evidence that women are encouraged to visit the graveyard”

Click on photo to enlarge

He supported his opinion that women are encouraged – just like men – to visit the graves with the following evidence:

  1. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “I had prohibited you from visiting the graves, but now I encourage you to visit them.” [Sahîh Muslim (977)]

In another narration it reads: “I had prohibited you from visiting the graves, but now I encourage you to visit them, because they are a reminder of the Hereafter.” [Sunan Abî Dâwûd (3235) and Musnad Ahmad (23005)]

In Sunan al-Nasâ’î, it reads: “Indeed, I had prohibited you from three things: from visiting the graves, but now I encourage you to visit them, and may your visiting them increase you in goodness…” [Sunan al-Nasâ’î (4429 and 5653)]

“This encouragement includes women, because when the Prophet (peace be upon him) had been prohibiting his followers from visiting the graves, the prohibition had been meant equally for men and for women. Therefore, when he lifted the prohibition, he did so for both men and women. “

  1. Women are equal with men with respect to the purpose for visiting the graves: which is to be reminded of the Hereafter and to soften the hearts.
  2. The Prophet (peace be upon him) permitted women to visit the graves.

`Abd Allah b. Abî Mulaykah relates: `Aishah came one day from the graveyard, so I said: “O Mother of Believers, from where have you come?”

She said: “From the grave of `Abd al-Rahmân b. Abî Bakr.” I said: “Did not the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbid visiting the graves?” She said: “Yes, then he commanded us to visit them.” [Mustadrak al- Hâkim (1/376), Sunan al-Bayhaqî (4/78) and Tamhîd Ibn `Abd al-Barr (3/233)]

In another narration, it reads at the end: “Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) permitted visiting the graves.” [Sunan Ibn Mâjah (1570)]

Al-Albânî comments: “Al-Hâkim does not talk about it and Imam al-Dhahabî says: ‘It is an authentic hadith.’ Al-Busayrî says: ‘Its line of transmission is authentic and its men are trustworthy.’ The ruling on this hadith is as they have stated.”

  1. The Prophet (peace be upon him) saw a woman crying at a grave so he told her: ‘Fear Allah and be patient.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (1252)] He did not forbid her from staying at the grave.

“Evidence that women are not to make frequent visits to the graveyard”

The proof that they should not be frequent visitors comes in the following hadiths:

  1. Abû Hurayrah relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) cursed the women who are frequent visitors of the graves.” [Sunan al-Tirmidhî (1056) and Sunan Ibn Mâjah (1576)] This hadîth is at least good (hasan), and it is supported by other narrations to the level of being authentic (sahîh).
  2. Hassân b. Thâbit relates: “Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) cursed the women who are frequent visitors of the graves. [Sunan Ibn Mâjah (1574)] Al-Albânî declares this hadîth to be acceptable (maqbûl) and sufficient for strengthening the hadîth of Abû Hurayrah to the level where it is authentic (sahîh).

There is a hadith related by Ibn `Abbâs, which reads in certain narrations: “Allah’s Messenger cursed the women who visit graves.” [Sunan al-Tirmidhî (320), Sunan Abî Dâwûd (3236), Sunan al-Nasâ’î (2034), and Sunan Ibn Mâjah (1575)]

“The word here is zâ’irât (women who visit) instead of zawwârât (women who are frequent visitors).”

However, this hadith is weak because one of its narrators, Abû Sâlih, is weak.

Also, even some narrations of this hadith mention “frequent visitors” instead of “women who visit”.

On this basis, al-Albânî concludes: “It therefore becomes clear regarding this hadith that the properly preserved wording is “frequent visitors”, since this is what is agreed upon in the hadith of Abû Hurayrah and the hadith of Hassân, as well as the narration of the majority of narrators of the hadith of Ibn `Abbâs.”

He then says: “The word zawwârât indicates that the curse is directed only at women who visit the graves excessively and no one else. Therfore, this hadith cannot be used to contradict the previously mentioned hadith that indicate it is encouraged for women to visit the graveyard, because this hadîth is specific and those hadith are general. Each hadith, therefore, must be applied to its own context.”

“He explains the reason why women should not visit the graves excessively: “This could lead them to fall into something that is contrary to Islamic teachings, like wailing, making a public display of themselves, taking the graves as places or relaxation and holiday, or wasting time in idle conversation. This is just like the situation that we see today in some Muslim countries. This is what is meant by the hadith.” [Refer to: al-Albânî, Ahkâm al-Janâ’iz wa Bada`uhâ (229-237)]




Wahhabis: “You forbid women from visiting the noble Baqi` with no agreed-upon, clear and explicit proof from the Law!” The following is a demonstration of the permissibility of visits to al-Baqi` according to the principles of Sacred Law and the proof-texts of the Sunnah.

Those who object to the visitation of graves by women adduce chiefly three hadiths as their proof, two of these being the weak-chained narrations, (a) “Allah curses the women who visit the graves”1 (la`ana Allahu zâ’irât al-qubûr) and (b) “Allah curses the women who visit the graves and take them for places of worship and candles,”2 the third one being, (c) “Allah curses the women who frequently visit the graves” 3 (la`ana Allahu zawwârât al-qubûr).

As indicated by Sayyid al-Rifa`i, the above narrations do not constitute “agreed-upon, clear and explicit proof from the Law” for the prohibition of women from visiting graves in Islam. Accordingly, the majority of the Ulema concur that women are permitted to visit the graves if there is no danger of temptation and sin.4 This is established by the following proofs:

1. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “I forbade you to visit the graves but [now] do visit them!”5

2. `A’isha – Allah be well-pleased with her – said: “The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – forbade the visitation of graves then permitted it, and I think he said: `For, truly, they remind you of the hereafter.'”6

3. `A’isha visited came to Mecca after her brother’s death saying, “Where is the grave of my brother?” Then she came to the grave and prayed over him, a month after his death.7 Another version states that Ibn Abi Mulayka said: “`A’isha’s brother died six miles away from Makka, so we carried him until we reached Makka and buried him there. `A’isha came to us after that and reproached us for doing so. Then she said: `Where is the grave of my brother?’ We showed it to her and she alighted in her howdah and prayed at his grave.”8< /p>

4. When `Abd Allah ibn Mulayka saw `A’isha visiting the grave of her brother `Abd al-Rahman he said to her: “Did not the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – forbid this [visitation of graves]?” She replied: “Yes, he had forbidden it. Then he ordered to visit them.”9 Ibn `Abd al-Barr mentions that Imam Ahmad adduces this report as proof that women are permitted to visit the graves.10

The wording and verb tenses used by the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – and the Companions in the above narrations show that these narrations explicitly abrogate the narrations that express prohibition. This is confirmed by al-Hakim who narrated the hadith: “Allah curses the women who frequently visit the graves” then said: “Those narrations pertaining to prohibition from visiting the graves are abrogated, the abrogator being the hadith of `Alqama ibn Marthad, from Sulayman ibn Burayda, from his father, from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him -: `I forbade you to visit the graves but [now] do visit them!'”11

5. Due to her strictness, and perhaps in confirmation of Ibn Abi Mulayka’s remark, `A’isha disliked to visit the grave of her brother as is evident from her remark in al-Tirmidhi’s narration of her visitation to `Abd al-Rahman: “If I had been present at the time of your death I would have never visited you [now].”12 Yet this is another proof that she did not understand the Prophet’s – Allah bless and greet him – prohibition as absolute – were it not abrogated – since she did allow herself the visitation of her brother despite it.

6. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – passed by a woman who was weeping next to a grave and said: “Fear Allah and be steadfast!” She replied: “Leave me alone! You were not afflicted with my affliction” – without recognizing him. Then she was told that this was the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him -. She came to see him and did not find anyone at the door [so entered directly] and said: “I did not recognize you!” He replied: “Steadfastness is only at the first shock.”13

7. `A’isha asked: “What should I say, O Messenger of Allah [at al-Baqi`]?” He replied: “Say: `Greeting to you, O people of the abodes among the men and women believers! May Allah grant mercy to those of you and us who went ahead and those who tarried back! Truly we shall – if Allah wills – join up with you.'”14

Al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Hajar and al-Nawawi said that the above narrations show that it is permitted for women to visit the graves in confirmation of `A’isha’s visitation of her brother, as the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – only admonished the mourning woman to be steadfast without forbidding her from visiting the grave, and he gave instructions to `A’isha on what to say when visiting the graves.15

8. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “I had forbidden you to visit the graves but Muhammad has been permitted to visit the grave of his mother, so visit them, for truly, they remind you of the hereafter.”16

9. Another version states: “I had forbidden you to visit the graves but do visit them for they truly remind one of the hereafter.”17

10. Another version states: “Whoever wants to visit the graves [may], truly they remind of the hereafter.”18

11. Another version states: “I had forbidden you to visit the graves but do visit them, for they help to renounce the world and they remind of the hereafter.”19

12. Another version states: “I forbade you to visit the graves then it appeared to me that they soften the heart, bring tears to the eyes, and remind one of the hereafter. Therefore, visit them, but do not say reprehensible things!”20

The proof for the visitation of women in the above five narrations is that the positive effects of remembering the hereafter, weeping, and softening the heart are not exclusively limited to men but extend to women as well. Therefore women are also addressed by these narrations which are to be taken in the most general, inclusive sense. This is confirmed by the practice of Fatima – Allah be well-pleased with her! – the daughter of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – as shown in the following two narrations:


13. Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq narrated with his chain from al-Hasan ibn `Ali that Fatima the daughter of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – – may Allah be well-pleased with all of them! – used to visit the grave of her uncle Hamza ibn `Abd al-Muttalib every Jumu`a21 and she used to pray and weep there.22 Another version adds that she had marked the grave with a rock in order to recognize it.23

14. The women wept over Ruqiyya – Allah be well-pleased with her! – when she died, so `Umar tried to forbid them but the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless and greet him – said, “Wait, O `Umar!” Then he said: “[Women,] beware of the devil’s croaking! As long as it comes from the eye and the heart, it is coming from mercy; and as long as it comes from the tongue and the hand,24 it is coming from Satan.” Whereupon, Fatima began to weep over the grave of Ruqiyya and the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – was wiping her tears from her face with his hand – or, the narrator said, his sleeve.25

Even if we should consider the first two of the three hadiths adduced by the objectors (a and b) authentic as a handful of scholars did, they do not form proof for prohibition, for two reasons. First, they are abrogated according to the more correct view as demonstrated. Second, they elucidate one another and are elucidated by the third hadith adduced (c), in the sense that the curse does not concern women who visit the graves in absolute terms, but only those women who both (1) visit excessively and (2) commit certain reprehensible acts during visitation as stated by al-Tirmidhi, al-Baghawi, al-Tahawi, al-Qurtubi, and others.26 This qualified prohibition is confirmed by the fact that the soundest version of the prohibition hadith states, “Allah curses the women who *frequently* visit the graves,” in which case the prohibition is patently restrictive, concerning only a specific group of women and not all of them.

Another confirmation is that this qualified prohibition extends to men as well, as stated in the hadith of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him -: “Allah curse the Jews and Christians! They took the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.”27 This men-inclusive qualified prohibition is further confirmed by the version stating: “I forbade you from visiting the graves and now [allow you to] visit them, but do not utter words that make your Lord angry!”28

The gist of this documentation is not that Muslim women today are indifferently permitted to visit the graves, since temptation and sin abound in our time and there is little or no observance of the obligations of Sacred Law shown by either Muslim men or women who visit the graves. To say the least, as al-Bayhaqi said: “If women keep themselves clear from following funeral processions, going out to cemetaries, and visiting graves, it would be healthier for their Religion – and from Allah comes success.”29 As far as we know, this is the Consensus of the Imams of Ahl al-Sunna.

Yet, the negative situation of contemporary Muslim visitors to city and country cemetaries hardly applies to the women pilgrims who visit al-Baqi` and the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – in Madina, where the effusion of emotion is somehow counter-balanced by the natural decorum of Madina al-Munawwara. Therefore their status there should be that of allowance together with male Muslims rather than prohibition as confirmed by the fatwa of the Ulema and contrary to the claims of a handful of Wahhabi dissenters such as the late `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Baz, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn `Abd al-Latif, Hammad al-Ansari and his student Bakr Abu Zayd, the late Abu Bakr al-Jaza’iri, and others of the circle who hold sway over the religious jurisdiction of the Two Sanctuaries.

As for the absolute prohibition, including the Mosque and al-Baqi` in Madina, insisted upon by Bakr Abu Zayd in his epistle titled “Juz’ fi Ziyarat al-Nisa’ li al-Qubur30 and his odd claim that the narrations prohibiting women from following the funeral bier apply to prove the prohibition of visitation, such claims stem from an unreasonable, stubborn rejection of the evidence and a blind following of the familiar founts of misguided originality and nonconformity – Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim. But truth is more deserving of being followed than eminent figures. And from Allah alone comes all success, and Allah Most High knows best.


1 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (7:452 #3178) with a weak chain because of `Umar ibn Abi Salama ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Zuhri who is weak as stated by al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf in Tahrir al-Taqrib (3:74 #4910). Also narrated from Hassan ibn Thabit from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – by Ibn Abi Shayba (3:31) with a weak chain because of `Abd al-Rahman ibn Bahman who is of unknown rank as a narrator (majhûl). The hadith itself is acceptable as “fair due to witness and corroborating chains and versions” (hasan lighayrih) as stated by al-Arna’ut in the Musnad (5:128 n. 2).
2 Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’i in both in al-Sunan and al-Sunan al-Kubra (1:657 #2174), Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shayba (2:151, 3:30), al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (12:178-179 #4741-4742), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (2:416-417 #510), Ibn Hibban (7:452-454 #3179-3180), al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:530) who indicated its weakness, al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:78 #6992), Ibn al-Ja`d in his Musnad (p. 224), al-Tabarani inal-Kabir (12:148), and al-Haythami in Mawarid al-Zam’an (p. 200), all with the same weak chain containing Abu Salih Mawla Umm Hani’ who is weak as stated by Ibn Hajar in al-Mundhiri’s al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:190) and al-Arna’ut in Sahih Ibn Hibban and the Musnad (5:128 #2984). However, the hadith itself is acceptable since al-Tirmidhi and al-Baghawi declared it “fair”; while Ibn al-Sakan included it among the sound (sahîh) narrations as stated by Ibn al-Mulaqqin inTuhfat al-Muhtaj (2:31).
3 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh), Ibn Majah, and Ahmad; from Ibn `Abbas by Ibn Majah with a weak chain because of Abu Salih; and from Hassan ibn Thabit by Ibn Majah and Ahmad with a weak chain because of `Abd al-Rahman ibn Bahman. Note: Ibn Majah’s versions have zuwwârât.
4 As stated by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 3:148), al-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar (chapters on burial and the rulings pertaining to graves), and al-Mubarakfuri in Tuhfa al-Ahwadhi (4:139).
5Narrated as part of a longer hadith: from Burayda by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh), Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’i, `Abd al-Razzaq (3:569), and others; from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by Ahmad with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythami (3:58), Malik, al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:530) who declared it sound by Muslim’s criterion, al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:77 #6984), and al-Bazzar with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythami (3:58); from Ibn Mas`ud by Ibn Majah, al-Daraqutni in his Sunan (4:259), `Abd al-Razzaq (3:572-573), Ibn Hibban (3:261), al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:531), and al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:77 #6983) all with weak chains according to al-Arna’ut; from Anas by Ahmad and al-Bazzar with chains containing al-Harith ibn Nabhan who is weak according to al-Haythami (4:27), al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:531-532), and al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:77 #6984).
6 Narrated by al-Bazzar with a chain of trustworthy narrators as stated by al-Haythami (3:58).
7 Narrated from Ibn Abi Mulayka by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra 4:49).
8 Narrated by `Abd al-Razzaq (3:518) and Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhid (6:261).
9 Narrated by Abu Ya`la (8:284) with a sound chain, al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:532), al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:78 #6993), and Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhid (3:233).
10 Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhid (3:234).
11 Al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:530).
12 Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn Mulayka by al-Tirmidhi.
13 Narrated from Anas in all the Six Books.
14 Narrated as part of a longer hadith by Muslim and al-Nasa’i.
15 Al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:78), Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 3:184); al-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim (7:41-42).
16 Narated from Burayda by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh).
17 Part of a longer hadith narrated from Burayda by Ahmad.
18 Part of a longer hadith narrated from Burayda by al-Nasa’i.
19 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Ibn Majah.
20 Part of a longer hadith narrated from Anas by Ahmad.
21 Narrated to here from Ja`far ibn Muhammad, from his father, without mention of al-Hasan by `Abd al-Razzaq (3:572) with an interrupted (munqati`) chain.
22 Narrated by al-Hakim (1990 ed. 1:533, 3:30) who declared its chain sound, al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:78), and Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhid (3:234) although al-Dhahabi condemns it strenuously while al-Bayhaqi alludes to its weakness.
23 Al-Athram and Ibn `Abd al-Barr narrated it as mentioned by al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir (10:381); also `Abd al-Razzaq (3:574) with a very weak chain because of al-Asbagh ibn Nubata, who is discarded (matrûk) as a narrator.
24 A reference to imprecations and the slapping of the cheeks still exhibited today by mourning Arab Christian women.
25 Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:70 #6946) with a chain containing `Ali ibn Zayd ibn Jud`an al-Taymi who is weak, but al-Bayhaqi considers it sound as it is confirmed by established narrations.
26 Cf. al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan after narrating the hadith of zawwârât from Abu Hurayra; al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (12:179-186); al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (2:417, 5:464); and al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir (20:170), as cited by al-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar (chapters on burial and the rulings pertaining to graves).
27 Narrated from `A’isha by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
28 Narrated from Abu Sa`id by al-Bazzar with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythami (3:58); from Ibn `Abbas by al-Rabi` in his Musnad (p. 194); and from Anas by Ahmad, Abu Ya`la (6:372), and Ibn Abi Shayba (3:29).
29 Al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:78).
30 In his misnamed al-Ajza’ al-Hadithiyya (p. 107-141).


Allah bless and greet the Prophet, his Family, and all his Companions. Wal-hamdu lillahi Rabb al-`alamin.