Let’s Understand SHiRK in the light of Quran & Hadith.

shrkusLiterally: In Arabic SHIRK means Partnership, Sharing or Associating

Islamic Terminology: Assigning partners with Allah  Subhana Wa Taala  in whatever form it may take


Major Shirk



[16:36] We have sent a messenger to every community, saying, “You shall worship Allah, and avoid idolatry.” Subsequently, some were guided by Allah, while others were committed to straying. Roam the earth and note the consequences for the rejecters.



[51:56] I did not create the jins and the humans except to worship Me alone.



(31:13) And (remember) when Luqmaan said to his son when he was advising him: “O my son! Do no join others in worship with Allah. Surely, joining others with Allah in worship is a great injustice”.

4) The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him said): ” the most and greatest of the sin is to commit shirk with Allah”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

5)  When Messenger  (Choicest blessing and peace be upon him) was asked what is the greatest sin. He replied the most severe sin is that you set up deities besides Allah while He has created you.

BOOK-(Bukhari, Muslim)

Other evidences from the Holy Qur’an

(ch4 v38) (ch4 v48) (ch5 v72) (ch18 v26) (ch18 v110) (ch22 v31) (ch7 v190)
(ch7 v191)

Minor Shirk

1) The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said:

i) The thing I fear for you the most is al- shirk al- asghar (minor shirk). The companions asked “O messenger of Allah, what is minor shirk?” He replied (peace be upon him) “showing off    (Riya)”

ii) He (peace be upon him) said: “When a person gets up to pray and strives to beautify his prayer because people are looking at him, that is secret shirk”.

Imam al-Hafidh al-Bayhaqi said in his book, Al-Asma’u was-Sifat, on page 400 [Kawthari edition]:

والذي روي في اّخر هذا الحديث إشارة إلى نفي المكان عن الله تعالى، وأن العبد أينما كان فهو في القرب والبعد من الله تعالى سواء، وأنه الظاهر فيصح إدراكه بالأدلة، الباطن فلا يصح إدراكه بالكون في مكان. واستدل بعض أصحابنا في نفي المكان عنه بقول النبي صلّى الله عليه و سلّم أنت الظاهر فليس فوقك شىء، وأنت الباطن فليس دونك شىء، وإذا لم يكن فوقه شىء ولا دونه شىء لم يكن في مكان

“…. What was mentioned towards the end of the hadith is an indication of denying Allah has a place and denying the slave is alike to Allah, wherever he was, in proximity or remoteness. Allah, the Exalted, is adh-Dhahir–hence, it is valid to know about Him by proofs. Allah is al-Batin–hence, it is invalid that He would be in a place.”

He also said:

“Some of our companions used as a proof to refute the place to Allah the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam : ‘You are adh-Dhahir and there is nothing above You, and You are al-Batin and there is nothing underneath You.’ Therefore, if there is nothing above Him and nothing underneath Him, He is not in a place.”

Similarly, regarding this same hadith [from Sahih Muslim]:

O Allah, You are the first: there is nothing before You; and You are the last: there is nothing after You. You are the Manifest (al-Zahir): there is nothing above You. You are the Hidden (al-Batin): there is nothing below You.

Al-Raghib al-Isfahani (d. 425 hegira) in his Mufradat al-Qur`an explained that Allah is the Manifest because His existence is intuitively evident to us through everything we see in the creation, while He is the Hidden because we can not comprehend the nature of His existence.

Mufradat al-Qur`an, (Damascus, Dar al-Qalam; and Beirut, Dar al Shamiyyah, 1992), p.131.

Imam Zayn ul-Abidin said:

وروى الحافظ اللغوي محمد مرتضى الزَّبيديُّ في شرح الإحياء بالإسناد المتصل أن الإمام عليًّا زين العابدين كان يقول: “سبحانك لا يحويك مكان” اهـ، وزين العابدين كان أفضل أهل البيت في زمانه

“glory be to you who has no place”

[documented in Imam Murtada Zabidis’s sharh al ihya ulum ud deen, with a mutasil isnad]

In Al-Farq Bayn al-Firaq under the chapter heading:

في بيان الاصول التى اجتمعت عليها اهل السنة

Imam Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi says:

واجمعوا على انه لا يحويه مكان ولا يجرى عليه زمان خلاف قول من زعم من الشهامية والكرامية انه مماس لعرشه وقد قال امير المؤمنين على رضي الله عنه ان الله تعالى خلق العرش اظهارا لقدرته لا مكانا لذاته وقال ايضا قد كان ولا مكان وهو الآن على ما كان

rough translation:

“Allah created al-‘arsh as an indication of His Power and did not take it as a place for Himself. Allah existed eternally without a place, and He now is as He ever was” [i.e. without a place]

Imam Ali [RA] is reported to have said:

تفسير مدارك التنزيل وحقائق التأويل/ النسفي
قول علي رضي الله عنه: الاستواء غير مجهول والتكييف غير معقول والإيمان به واجب والسؤال عنه بدعة لأنه تعالى كان ولا مكان فهو على ما كان قبل خلق المكان لم يتغير عما كان.

[rough translation]

“al-Istiwa is not unknown, and the modality is altogether inconceivable. To affirm it is obligatory and to ask questions about it is an innovation, this is because Allah was, when there was nothing, and He created place before there was a place, and He is in no need for a place”.

[Reported in Tafsir Madaarik al-Tanzeel wa Haqaa’iq al-Ta’weel by an-Nasafi, under surah Taha (20) ayat (5)]

قال الإمام علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه :-” من زعم أن إلهنا محدود فقد جهل الخالق المعبود” ا.هـ رواه أبو نعيم في حلية الأولياء

Ali bin Abi Talib RA is also attributed by Hafidh Abu Nu’aym in his Hilyatul Awliya as saying:

[rough translation]

“He who a claims that our Lord is limited is ignorant about the Creator who is worshipped.”

Imam Ash-Shaafi’i stated,

” إنه تعالى كان ولا مكان فخلق المكان وهو على صفة الأزلية كما كان قبل خلقه المكان لا يجوز عليه التغيير في ذاته ولا التبديل في صفاته ” اهـ. [إتحاف السادة المتقين (2/ 24 ]

“Verily, He the exalted was, without makaan (station or place). He created Makaan and He was upon His attribute of eternality just as He was before he created makaan. It is not permitted upon Him to change his essence or to change in His attributes.”

[It-Haaf As-Saadah Al Muttaqeen 2/24]

Imaam Ibn Hibbaan in his Thiqaat says,

“الحمد لله الذي ليس له حد محدود فيحتوى، ولا له أجل معدود فيفنى، ولا يحيط به جوامع المكان ولا يشتمل عليه تواتر الزمان”. الثقات (1/ 1)

He also stated in his Saheeh,

“كان- الله- ولا زمان ولا مكان”

“Allah was – without time and without makaan (station).”

وقال الشيخ الإمام أبو منصور عبد القاهر بن طاهر التميمي البغدادي الإسفراييني (429 هـ) ما نصه : “وأجمعوا- أي أهل السنة- على أنه- أي الله- لا يحويه مكان ولا يجري عليه زمان ” اهـ.

Ash-Shaykh Al Imaam Abu Mansur Abdul Qaahir ibn Taahir At-Tameemi Al Baghdaadi Al-Isfaraa-ini (died 429 AH) said, “They have consensus – meaning Ahlus Sunnah – upon the fact that Allah is not contained in a place (makaan) and time does not run upon him.”

الفرق بين الفرق (ص/ 333)

وقال أبو محمد علي بن أحمد المعروف بابن حزم الأندلسي (456 هـ) : ” وأنه تعالى لا في مكان ولا في زمان، بل هو تعالى خالق الأزمنة والأمكنة، قال تعالى: (وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيراً)(سورة الفرقان/2)، وقال (خلقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا)(سورة الفرقان/59)، والزمان والمكان هما مخلوقان، قد كان تعالى دونهما، والمكان إنما هو للاجسام”

Ibn Hazm Al Andalusi said, “And He ta’alaa is not in a place and is not in time…”

[كتابه علم الكلام: مسألة في نفي المكان عن الله تعالى (ص/ 65)]

Al Qaadhi Ash-Shaykh Abul Waleed Muhammad ibn Ahmad Qaadhi Al Jama’ah in Qurtubah (cordoba), well known as Ibn Rushd Al Jadd (the grandfather – this is not the author of Bidaayatul Mujtahid – it is his grandfather) Al Maaliki stated,

“ليس- الله- في مكان، فقد كان قبل أن يخلق المكان

“Allah is not in a place. He is as he was before he created ‘place’. ”

[This is mentioned by Ibn Al Haaj Al Maaliki in his Madkhal.]

قال ابن حزم (وهو ممن يتكلم باسم السلف) قول تعالى يجب حمله على ظاهره ما لم يمنع من حمله على
ظاهره نصّ آخر أو إجماع أو ضرورة حس, وقد علمنا أن كل ما كان في مكان, فإنه شاغل لذلك المكان
ومالئ له ومتشكل بشلكه, ولا بدّ من أحد الأمرين ضرورة, وعلمنا أن ما كان في مكان فإنه متناه بتناهي
مكانه وهو ذو جهات ست أو خمس متناهية في مكانه وهذه صفات الجسم اه ثم قال:إن الأمة أجمعت على
أنه لا يدعو أحد فيقول يا مستو ارحمني, ولا يسمى ابنه عبد المستوي اه ثم قال إن معنى قوله تعالى على
العرش استوى أنه فعل فعله في العرش وهو انتهاء خلقه إليه, فليس بعد العرش شيء, والعرش نهاية جرم
المخلوقات الذي ليس خلفه خلاء ولا ملاء, ومن أنكر أن يكون للعالم نهاية من المساحة والزمان والمكان
لحق بقول الدهرية, وفارق الإسلام اه ثم ردّ على القائلين بالمكان وختم كلامه بقوله فإنه لا يكون في
مكان إلا ما كان جسما أو عرضا في جسم, هذا الذي لا يجوز سواه, ولا يتشكل في العقل والوهن غيره
ألبتة, وإذا انتهى أن يكون الله عز وجل جسما أو عرضا, فقد انتهى أن يكون في مكان أصلا وبالله نتأيد اه
فليعتبر بقول ابن حزم هذا أدعياء السلف من مشبّهة العصر. 3

Imam al-Kawthari RH says regarding Imam Ibn Hazm RH:

Ibn Hazm (who was a person wont to speak in the name of the salaf) said:

“One is required to take Allah’s word, exalted is He, literally as long as there is no text, or consensus, or empirical necessity, stops us from doing that. We know that everything that is in a place occupies that space and fills it and assumes its shape. One of the two things has to be. We know that whatever is in a place has to be limited by the limits of that place, as it has to be in limited by a finite limit in the six or five directions in its space, and these are the attributes of bodies.”

Then he said: “The ummah is agreed that no one should say ‘O, He who has ascended, have mercy on me’! just as no one should name his son ‘Slave of the One Who Ascended.’”

Then he said: “Truly, the meaning of His saying, exalted is He, ‘He made istiwà on the Throne’ is that He acted in some way on the Throne; namely, He ended His creation with it, for there is nothing after the Throne which is the end of creation; there is nothing after it, neither space, nor void. Anybody who denies that the creation has a finite limit in distance and time and space joins the materialists and leaves Islam.”

Then he refuted those who insist that Allah occupies space and he ended his discourse saying: “Nothing can be in space except what is a body or an accident [what occurs in a substance like heat, color and so on] in a body; there is no other possibility, for neither reason nor imagination can conceive of another possibility at all. Since it is concluded that Allah is neither a body nor an accident, it is concluded that He cannot occupy space absolutely. And Allah is our help.”

So let those claim to follow the salaf in our times likening Allah to His creatures consider carefully this proclamation of Ibn Hazm.


الأسماء والصفات, ص 516 , تعليق رقم ( 1

Point No. 1.
There will be No Shirk in My ummah I fear only you will fell in duniya , these are words of beloved Prophet Hazrat Syedina Muhammadar-rasool Allah ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) given in the Kutbah Mubarak after the ziyarat of martyrs of Uhud.

Point No.2
Also note there was pulpit ( Mimber ) which was carried and there was speech biyan given by Huzoor e kareem ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) and many Sahaba-e-Ikhram Rizwan allahi thaalah alaiheem ajmaeens were present in this mubarak occasion.

Point No.3
From these hadiths mubaraks of muslim shareef and bukhari Shareef it is clear that the urs e shareef of awliyas of the ummah which is also celebrated every year and biyans kept in the urs e shareef and people gathering etc is the sunnah of  beloved prophet Hazrat Syedina Muhammadur Rasool Allah ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) and sahabas.
Also point to be noted is that the mazar e shareefs of  martyrs were visited every year on the particular day of martyrdom. Thus Urs e shareef of awliyas is the sunnah. Lastly Huzoor e kareem Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam also

Point No.4
The Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayer for the martyrs of the (battle of) Uhud and then ascended the pulpit and said, “I am your predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking at my Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth).

Now the Question arises here and Important Conclusion :
When beloved prophet hazrat syedina muhammadur rasool allah ( sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ) had announced and declared that there will be no shirk in my ummah and I fear only my ummah may fall in duniya. Is it right that now in the ummah muslims are blaming other muslims brothers as shirk doers. From here we can conclude that these people who are blaming other people as shirk doers are going agains the declaration and the wordings of the beloved prophet hazrat Syedina Muhammadur Rasool Allah ( Sal-lal-lahu alaihi wa sallam ). It is a gravesin and haram to patch any muslim as shirk doer from these hadith e mubaraks of Kutbas of Uhud.

Below are the hadith e shareefs Quotations from Sahih Muslims and Sahih Bukhari Shareef.

Sahih Bukhari book:maghaazi chapter:battle of uhud
Sahih Muslim book:fazail
Sunan Abu Daud book:kitab-al-janaiz
Musnad Ahmed bin hanbal

Narrator: uqbah bin aamir(RadiAllahu anhu)

Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) prayed salah for martyres of uhud as he is saying farewell
to both dead and live ones.then he appeared in MIMBAR and said: i am your
leader,and i am witness over you,our place for meeting is HAUZ-E-KAUTHAR
and i am seeing hauz-e-kauthar from here and i have no fear about you
that after me you will fall in SHIRK but i fear you will fall in
WORLDLY LOVE.uqbah(RadiAllahu anhu) furthur said that day i saw prophet for last

Sahih muslim book: fazail

Narrator: Uqbah bin aami(RadiAllahu anhu)

Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said : i have no fear that you people will fall in SHIRK but
i fear that you will be surrender yourself in love of WORLD and will
fight among yourselves and die like it has done by people before you.

Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir:
The Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayer for the martyrs of the (battle of) Uhud and then ascended the pulpit and said, “I am your predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking at my Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth). By Allah! I am not afraid that after me you will worship others besides Allah, but I am afraid that you will start competing for (the pleasures of) this world.”

(Bukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 76 :: Hadith 434 )

Now a days People call respecting graves as worship while Prophet صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم had clearly stated that He صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم has no fear of Shirk from this ummah:

حضرت عقبہ بن عامر رضی اللہ عنہ سے روایت ہے کہ حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے شہداءِ اُحد پر (دوبارہ) آٹھ سال بعد اس طرح نماز پڑھی گویا زندوں اور مُردوں کو الوداع کہہ رہے ہوں۔ پھر آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم منبر پر جلوہ افروز ہوئے اور فرمایا : میں تمہارا پیش رو ہوں، میں تمہارے اُوپر گواہ ہوں، ہماری ملاقات کی جگہ حوضِ کوثر ہے اور میں اس جگہ سے حوضِ کوثر کو دیکھ رہا ہوں اور مجھے تمہارے متعلق اس بات کا ڈر نہیں ہے کہ تم (میرے بعد) شرک میں مبتلا ہو جاؤ گے بلکہ تمہارے متعلق مجھے دنیاداری کی محبت میں مبتلا ہو جانے کا اندیشہ ہے۔ حضرت عقبہ فرماتے ہیں کہ یہ میرا حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا آخری دیدار تھا (یعنی اس کے بعد جلد ہی آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا وصال ہو گیا)۔ ˜

البخاري في الصحيح، کتاب : المغازي، باب : غزوة أحد، 4 / 1486، الرقم : 3816،

This hadith is very important, Prophet صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم knew that some fitna creator will

come in this ummah and they will declare visiting respecting Graves and Shrines as

worship and shirk, that is why Prophet صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم while standing near graves and Shrines of Shuhada-e-Uhad made it clear that He صلی اللہ علیھ وآلھ وسلم has no fear of shirk

from this Ummah.

حضرت عقبہ بن عامر رضی اللہ عنہ سے مروی ہے کہ حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے فرمایا : بے شک میں تمہارا پیش رو

اور تم پر گواہ ہوں۔ بیشک خدا کی قسم! میں اپنے حوض (کوثر) کو اس وقت بھی دیکھ رہا ہوں اور بیشک مجھے زمین کے خزانوں کی

کنجیاں (یا فرمایا : زمین کی کنجیاں) عطا کر دی گئی ہیں اور خدا کی قسم! مجھے یہ ڈر نہیں کہ میرے بعد تم شرک کرنے لگو گے بلکہ

مجھے ڈر اس بات کا ہے کہ تم دنیا کی محبت میں مبتلا ہو جاؤ گے۔ ˜

أخرجه البخاري في الصحيح، کتاب : المناقب، باب : علامات النَّبُوَّةِ فِي الإِسلام، 3 / 1317، الرقم : 3401.

Click this :- To be Continued…..

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